Friday, June 04, 2021

Production process of bagel

Bagels are commonly hard rolls which are shaped like a donut i.e., circular with a hole in the center. They are made of raised dough in a process which includes simmering in boiling water which is followed by baking.

Bagels have a very simple formulation similar to simple bread or roll formulas (i.e. flour, salt, yeast, and water).

Mixing of a low-absorption bagel dough is very energy intensive. It is essential that the bagel dough is properly mixed as the gluten needs to be fully developed. The dough is mixed on low to medium speed until it is extensible. Optimum final dough temperature is 78°–82°F (25°–28°C).

Makeup is carried out after giving the dough little or no floor time. Bagels can be formed manually or by automated machines, which produce a more uniform shape. Automated lines use a rotary knife divider with a former. A typical scaling weight is three ounces (eighty-five grams). The bagel is just a clump of dough at this point.

Retarding is an important step for flavor development and dough relaxation. Long retarding times ensure a flavorful product as a result of fermentation by yeast and lactic acid bacteria. Retarding time is typically 12 to 18 hours at 35°–42°F (2°–6°C).

Proofing conditions depend on whether the product was retarded. If retarded, the bagels are allowed to sit at room temperature for thirty minutes to warm up, covered to prevent drying. Then they are proofed for twenty to thirty minutes at 85°–90°F (29°–32°C) and 65–75 percent RH. If bagels are not proofed properly then they will not rise to the surface when boiled. Over proofed bagels tend to collapse when removed from water.

Boiling. The dough pieces are next cooked in water at 212 °F. for 30 seconds to 3 minutes until they float on the surface of the water. Slightly longer times may be needed for larger bagels. After boiling, a short drying time is necessary. Boiling gelatinizes the starch on the surface of the dough giving a glossy exterior which distinguishes them from regular bread rolls. The boiling process also sets the outside structure of the roll so the bagel retains its shape during the baking process.

Baking. The bagels are dried and then baked. Baking times normally range from 17 to 25 minutes. Baking temperatures range from 400° to 450°F (205° to 235°C).
Production process of bagel

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